City history of Nikolaev (Part I)

About the biography of Ukrainian cities are in many apects similar to destinies of people. Nikolayev in the beginning has received a trade, and then a name and city status. Nikolaev lives and works on the fine fertile earth of the south of Ukraine. Here the hot steppe meets the sea. The Prichernomorsky steppe remembers kimmerian horsemen and bearded Scythians. To this day rough short summer downpours wash away splinters of the Greek amphoras, the turned black coins of various times and the states, clay Turkish and Cossack tubes from the local fertile earth. From first centuries of our era these places gradually occupied slavic tribes, and from end Х of century territory where present Nikolayev is located, was a part of the Kievan Rus.

On estuary Dnepro-Bugsky the trading way "from the Varangian in Greeks" lay, went loaded honey, wax, amber, castle furs русичей to the distant countries. Many strangers encroached on pribugskiy edge. More than two centuries primordially slavic earths were under double oppression - Tatars and Mongols. And here, on southern territory, there were on protection of the native earth brave knights of freedom - the Zaporozhye Cossacks, with a breast having covered Ukraine from the Turkish and Tatar weapon. Within long years the Russian state conducted a dragged-out war with Turkey and its vassals for the exit right to Black sea. In 1787 after a victory in Crimea, having broken the enemy beyond Bug the prince G.A.Potemkin has besieged a fortress Ochakov. The siege was tightened, for a victory the modern marine sea fleet surpassing in the power the Turkish was necessary. One Kherson shipyard not in a condition was to consult with a strategic problem on the accelerated equipment of fleet. Then under G.A.Potemkina's instructions its right hand the foreman M.L.Faleev has found a place for new shipyard at a river Ingul mouth. Having examined G.A.Potemkin's this place was delighted, it had a creation project here grandiose admiralty with workshops, factories and factories - cradles of the future Russian Black Sea fleet. So till a birth our city has received a trade. On command of the prince of G.A.Potemkina on the chosen place in 1788 the new shipyard which in the beginning was called differently also has been put: Ingulsky, Ust-Ingul, Shipyard on Ingul.

Round shipyard the small town, while the anonymous quickly grew. The name to settlement - Nikolaev - has been given G.A.Potemkinym on August, 27th, 1789 in memory of a capture by Russian armies of a Turkish fortress Ochakov in day of a Christian holiday of Saint Nikolay Mirlikijskiy- the patron of seamen on December, 6th 1788 г, and in October, 1790 the statement of Nikolaev as cities Russian government has taken place. To tell the truth, for this moment in a newborn city under documents was only 26 court yard and inhabitants: 105 men and 42 women. However in 2 years in 1792 in a city already there was 1 church, 100 barracks, 13 shops, 158 stone houses, 61 dugout, 209 mud huts, 149 benches and 1566 inhabitants and 1734 time workers. The first ship - a 44-gun frigate "Sacred Nikolay" has been put on shipyard on January, 5th 1790г. Also it is floated on August, 25th the same year. The young shipyard worked, dews and the new city was under construction. To the West from shipyard civil settlements, to the east - military men grew. From first years of the existence the city was built up according to plan. Originally over these works engineer I.I.Knjazev supervised, but already in the beginning of 1790 known Russian architect I.E.Starovym had been made a city general layout. It also had been developed projects of some administrative, cult, palace and trading buildings. Today's equal as a street arrow, accurate squares of quarters in old city centre - an embodiment of that ancient plan. In November, 1791 on shipyard have put the largest on the Black Sea fleet the 90-gun ship "Sacred Pavel", floated and August, 1794" Sacred Pavel "as the best ship of fleet became a flagship of admiral F.F.Ushakov. The glorified admiral held on it the flag throughout all Mediterranean company of 1798-1802.