City history of Nikolaev (Part II)

By way of gratuity to a city of shipbuilders has put to F.F.Ushakov's masters has transferred from Sevastopolthe first saplings of a white acacia and bushes for an ornament of a young city. In 1794 from Kherson to Nikolaev the Black Sea Admiralty management has been translated. For many years Nikolaev become base of shipbuilding in the south.

Here settle both shipbuilders, and seamen, and builders. Our city saw off in swimmings of outstanding naval commanders F.F.Ushakov, P.S.Nahimov, V.A.Kornilov, F.F.Bellinsgauzen, G.I.Butakov, M.P.Lazarev, A.S.Grejg.

In the biography of a young city have found reflexion many historical events. Bright page the city history included the events connected with a Patriotic War of 1812 Mass heroism of the people in struggle against Napoleonic hordes has found the wide patriotic response at nikolaev citizens. In 1812 From sailors of Nikolaev and Sevastopol 75th ship crew has been generated. Having landed in a mouth of Danube, the crew has joined army Chichagov, participated in many fights and a capture of Paris. Active participation in war was accepted also by an ex-hadron generated from local residents, and the Bugsky Cossacks.

During the Crimean war Nikolaev became the main rear base of the Black Sea fleet. The Nikolaev Admiralty provided fleet and army with necessary arms. Besides in Nikolaev it has been generated and sent to Crimea four crews (to 4000 persons) from workmen who heroically battled during defence of Sevastopol. Barracks, schools and even private houses were equipped under hospitals for the wounded men evacuated here from Sevastopol. To warn possible intrusion into Nikolaev enemy ships and armies, on distant and near approaches to a city forces of soldiers and the peace population erected strengthenings, 160 guns have been established. When Russian armies had been left Sevastopol, the enemy ships have made some desperate attempts to break to Nikolaev, but each time received resolute repulse. By century of a city its population has already grown to 70 thousand. Basically it there were workmen of shipyards, handicraftsmen. Shipbuilders lodged in streets with names corresponding to their trades - Forge, Boiler, Konopatnaja, Engineering … And sea ranks and another people - in nikolaev streets Admiral'skaya, Artilleriyskaya, Bolshaya Morskaya, MalayaMorskaya, Navarinskaya more often.

There were years, the sailing fleet became outdated, to it on change vessels with steam engines have come. In Nikolaev new shipyards began to be under construction, the industrial enterprises were erected. In 1895-1897 in Nikolaev there are ship-building and mechanical factories, which in 1907г. Have merged in one - "Naval". In 1911г. On the basis of Admiralty the factory of Russian ship-building association "Russud" has been created. It is necessary to carry to the large industrial enterprises of pre-revolutionary Nikolaev also factory of agricultural cars of brothers Don, iron-works Petrikovsky, steam mills. In 1962 the sea trading port, customs, foreign consulates has been opened, the input to the foreign ships is resolved.

The port intensively grew and soon on a turnover of goods became the third on value after Petersburg and Odessa. In 1873 the railway communication between Nikolaev and Harkov has been opened. And in 1907 between Nikolaev and Kherson. In the end of XIX - the beginning of XX century the cultural life of a city has considerably quickened. In 1865 the newspaper "Nikolaev bulletin" has started to leave, the society of sea doctors, city meeting, branch of Russian technical society and a society Nikolaev pilots will be organised, man's and female grammar schools affirm. In 1881 the theatre on 900 places has been constructed, in 1892 the musical school, and in 1914 is opened - An art museum.

On spot-check of just open yacht-club passed races of sailing sports courts. Under wind band sounds small passenger steamships sailed away. Balls in officer meetings … Storms of history rustled did not spare Nikolaev. In June, 15th, 1902 has left harbour where he was born become history as a symbol of revolutionary struggle one of the most powerful ships of the Black Sea fleet a battleship "Prince Potyomkin Tavrichesky" constructed by hands of the Nikolaev shipbuilders. Sailors, the future participants of revolt participated in vessel assemblage. When on July, 14th, 1905 the rebellious battleship has lifted mutiny, workers of Nikolaev have supported the risen seamen mass strikes. In October days 1917 Nikolaev named "Red Peter Ukraine" - so heat of struggle was high here. The First World War, revolutions, Austro-Hungarian occupation, bloody civil war … all it has endured our city. In 1920 the Soviet power here has affirmed. After civil war in the conditions of a cold, hunger, ruins nikolaev citizens hard lifted from ruins factories and factories. For years of pre-war five-years periods the city has grown in industrial centre with forty enterprises of allied and republican value, not including groan the enterprises of local value. These enterprises made more than 1000 kinds of production.